Microphones By Function

Microphone categories based on its function / usage type
(Stand, Lavalier, Headset, PZM, Boundary, Coir, Shotgun, Neck, Pocket etc)

(1) Stand / Handheld Microphones --- These are the most common microphones you see on the stand or as a handheld microphone and hence need no explanation. Shure SM58 is the most common microphone you see in front of singers on the stand. Can come in any shape of capsules. Can be dynamic or condenser. 

(2) Lavalier / Lav / Lapel Microphones --- These are also referred by some as collar or shirt mics. They are clipped onto the shirt and are wired on the other end either into a wireless bodypack unit or directly into the mixer. These microphones can be made of omni or cardioid capsules. Almost all of them are condensers. 

(3) Headset Microphones --- These are worn around the head at ear level with the microphone tip either in front of the mouth or on the side against the cheek. These are again made of  omni or directional capsules. Almost all of them are condensers. 

(4) Pressure Zone Microphones (PZM) --- These are mounted on walls, on floor where wall meets the roof or at 90 degree angle locations. These are excellent microphones but their application has to be carefully designed. We have had some luck with these but are generally less useful. Almost all of them are condensers. 

(5) Boundary Microphones --- Typically a table top or podium microphone which is less conspicuous. Crown PCC-160 is an excellent choice either for use in sajdah position or on the podium. It is used as a floor microphone in plays / theaters but we have used this microphone in many Masajid with very good success. Most of them are condensers.

(6) Coir Microphones --- These hang from the roof in churches to capture a bunch of people singing. We can also use these on Mimber hanging from the roof. Again be careful when using this in your design as these can be prone to feedback if closer to the speakers. All that we know of are condensers. 

(7) Pocket Microphones --- They are like lavalieres but can be placed in a pocket and have built in transmitter. They differ from lavalier microphones as they do not have any wires. It is a condenser mic. Example is Revolabs Wearable HD microphone. 

(8) Shotgun Microphones --- They are used for distant miking when the source is two or three feet away from the mic. One of these can be installed on top of the mehraab and point it to the mouth of Imam. This type of setup can eliminate the physical interference caused by the microphone stand during Ruku and Sujood. This is a creative solution which has to be designed and implemented carefully. Ex: Rode ntg-2

(9) Collar Microphone
--- These are microphones that are worn around the neck on top of the collar and do  not touch the skin. There are specials versions of these. MSS is working with some microphone manufacturers to come up with a version that will be solely meant for Imam during Salaat.